State of the Art Aircraft Flight

A multi-disciplinary software system has been developed over the past 15 years to address engineering problems of performance capability, commercial viability, sustainable environmental and responsible aviation. 

Over the years, FLIGHT-X it has been continuously verified, tested and applied to a variety of aviation projects. The core software has been documented in a large number of books, peer-review papers, international conferences, CPD courses, and other outlets.

An aerospace database has been developed in the process, including airplanes, aero-engines, APU, landing-gear systems, high-lift systems, helicopters, airfield models, flight data recorder data packs, ADS-B flight trajectories. 


A. Aircraft noise analysis, forecasting and reduction, including:

  • Noise component assessment
  • Noise trajectories predictions and noise abatement
  • Noise mapping at and around airfields with real-time effects
  • Airfield noise measurements and reporting
  • Military aircraft noise
  • Flight trajectory optimisation for minimum noise and DOC
  • Atmospheric effects (wind, temperature) and ground effects.

B. Environmental emissions calculations, including

  • Both turbofan and turboprop aircraft
  • All chemical species: CO2, NOx, SOx, UHC, H2O, particulate matter
  • Landing and take-off cycle emissions (LTO)
  • Stratospheric emissions
  • Parametric analysis: trajectories, city pairs, flight altitude
  • Contrail probability forecasting and avoidance

C. Flight in harsh environments, including

  • Dust ingestion following dust storms or contaminated air
  • Volcanic ash ingestion
  • Effects on engine performance degradation due to dust, ash, FOD

D. Aero-mechanics capability, including

  • Field performance
  • Cruise performance and optimisation, altitude selection
  • Redispatch, go-around performance
  • Descent optimisation: steep descent, continous descent

E. Operational analysis, including

  • Mission fuel and range planning
  • Fuel tankering & parametric effects: cost differentials, weight
  • Direct Operating Costs (DOC)
  • Cost Index evaluation
  • Competitor aircraft/engine analysis

F. System Integration

  • Ability to parse FDR trajectories
  • Ability to parse and fly ADS-B trajectories
  • Possible interface with other databases, such as IAGOS

G. Engineering Science capabilities

  • Configuration and component aerodynamics: subsonic aerodynamics & stability derivatives
  • Variety of configurations: freighters, business, amphibious...
  • Advanced propeller performance and design
  • Aero-engine performance and engine flight envelopes
  • Aero-engine aging & deterioration effects
  • Helicopter aero-mechanics, including tilt-rotors
  • Thermo-structural performance:
    • Tyre heating & dynamics (ground ops, aborted take-off)
    • Fuel temperature in flight
    • Engine jet blasts

The mindmap below shows how to we address problems such as environmental emissions.

Examples of features are demonstrated in a brief technical note.

Engine exhaust emissions calculations

Selected Publications on FLIGHT-X


    1. Filippone A. Advanced Aircraft Performance including Environmental Performance. 2nd edition, AIAA Educational Series, 2022. ISBN: 978-1-62410-639-2. DOI: https://arc.aiaa.org/doi/10.2514/4.106408 

Peer-Reviewed Papers

  1. Zhang M and Filippone A.  Optimum problems in environmental emissions of aircraft arrivals. Aerospace Science & Technology, March 2022. DOI: 10.1016/j.ast.2022.107502
  2. Smith D, Filippone A, Barakos G. Noise Source Analysis in Counter Rotating Open Rotors, AIAA Journal. DOI: 10.2514/1.J060886
  3. Filippone A and Parkes B. Evaluation of commuter airplane emissions: A European case study. Transportation Research Part D, 98, pp. 102979, Sept 2021. DOI: 10.1016/j.trd.2021.102979
  4. Ellis M, Bojdo N, Filippone A, Clarkson R.  Monte Carlo Predictions of Aero-Engine Performance Degradation due to Particle Ingestion, Aerospace, 8(6), May 2021. DOI: 10.3390/aerospace8060146
  5. Appleton W, Filippone A, Bojdo N. Interaction Effects on the Conversion Corridor of Tiltrotor Aircraft. Aeronautical Journal, April 2021DOI: 10.1017/aer.2021.33
  6. Filippone A, Parkes B, Bojdo N, Kelly T.  Prediction of aircraft engine emissions using ADS-B flight data, RAeS Aeronautical Journal, pp. 1 – 25, 2021. DOI: 10.1017/aer.2021.2.
  7. Smith D, Filippone A, Barakos N. Acoustic analysis of a counter-rotating open rotor with a locked blade row, AIAA Journal, 2020. DOI: 10.2514/J.059273
  8. Bojdo N, Filippone A, Parkes B Clarkson R. Aircraft engine dust ingestion following sandstorms. Aerospace Science & Tech, 106, pp. 106072, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.ast.2020.106072
  9. Smith D, Filippone A, Bojdo N. Noise reduction of a counter rotating open rotor through a locked blade row. Aerospace Sci. & Tech., 98, pp. 105637, March 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.ast.2019.105637
  10. Filippone A, Zhang M, Bojdo N. Validation of an integrated simulation model for aircraft noise and engine emissions.  Aerospace Science & Techn. 89, pp. 370-381, 2019. DOI: 10.1016/j.ast.2019.04.008.
  11. Bojdo N & Filippone A. A Simple model to assess the role of dust composition and size on 
    deposition in rotorcraft engines. Aerospace, 6 (44), 2019.  DOI: 10.3390/aerospace6040044.
  12. Zhang M, Filippone A. Bojdo N. Multi-objective optimisation of aircraft departure trajectories. Aerospace Science & Technology, 79, pp. 37-47, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.ast.2018.05.032
  13. Filippone A, Bojdo N. Statistical model for gas turbine engines exhaust emissions. J. Transp. Research Part D59, pp. 451-463, March 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.trd.2018.01.019.
  14. Filippone A. Options for aircraft noise reduction on arrival and landing. Aerospace Sci. & Tech. 60(1), pp. 31-38, Jan 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.ast.2016.10.027
  15. Filippone A. & Harwood A. Flyover noise measurements and predictions of commercial airplanes, Journal of Aircraft, 53(2), pp. 396-405, 2016. DOI: 10.2514/1.C033370.
  16. Filippone A. Assessment of aircraft contrails avoidance strategies, Journal of Aircraft, 52(3), pp. 872-877, May–June 2015. DOI: 10.2514/1.C033176.
  17. Filippone A.  Turboprop aircraft noise: advancements and comparisons with flyover data. Aeronautical J., 119 (1215), pp. 565- 587, May 2015. DOI: 10.1017/S0001924000010691
  18. Bojdo N & Filippone A. Self-cleaning barrier filter for rotorcraft engines, RAeS Aeronautical J, 118 (1209), Nov. 2014. DOI: 10.1017/S0001924000009982
  19. Bojdo N & Filippone A. A Comparative Study of Helicopter Engine Particle Separators.  Journal of Aircraft. 51(3), pp. 1030-1042, May 2014. DOI: 10.2514/1.C032322
  20. Filippone A. Aircraft Noise Prediction. Progress in Aerospace Sciences, 68, pp. 27-63, March 2014. DOI: 10.1016/j.paerosci.2014.02.001
  21. Filippone A & Bertsch LJ. Comparison of Aircraft Noise Models with Flyover Data.  J. Aircraft, 51(3), pp. 1043—1047, May 2014. DOI: 10.2514/1.C032368.
  22. Filippone A & Mohamed-Kassim Z. Multi-Disciplinary Simulation of Propeller-Turboprop Aircraft Flight.   RAeS Aeronautical Journal, 116 (1184), pp. 985-1014, Oct. 2012. DOI:10.1017/S0001924000007454.
  23. Filippone, A. Theoretical Framework for the Simulation of Transport Aircraft Flight. J. Aircraft, 47 (5) pp. 1679 – 1696, Sept. 2010. DOI: 10.2514/1.C000252.
  24. Filippone A & Bojdo N. Turboshaft Engine Air Particle Separation. Progress in Aerospace Sciences, 46 (2), pp. 224 -245, 2010. DOI: 10.1016/j.paerosci.2010.02.001.
  25. Filippone A. Cruise Altitude Flexibility of Jet Transport Aircraft. Aerospace Science & Technology, 14, pp. 283-294, 2010. DOI: 10.1016/j.ast.2010.01.003.
  26. Filippone A. Rapid Estimation of Airfoil Aerodynamics for Helicopter Rotor Calculations. J. Aircraft, 45 (4), pp. 1468 -1472, July 2008. DOI: 10.2514/1.35560.
  27. Filippone A. Comprehensive Analysis of Transport Aircraft Flight Performance. Progress Aerospace Sciences, 44 (3), pp. 192 -236, Apr. 2008. DOI: 10.1016/j.paeosci.2007.10.005.
  28. Filippone A. Analysis of Carbon-dioxide Emissions from Transport Aircraft.  J. Aircraft, 45 (1), pp. 185 -197, Jan. 2008. DOI: 10.2514/1.31422.
  29. Filippone A. Steep-descent Maneuver of Transport Aircraft. J. Aircraft, 44 (5), pp. 1727-1739, Sept. 2007.  DOI:10.2514/1.28980.
  30. Filippone A. On the Benefits of Lower Mach Number Aircraft Cruise. Aeronautical Journal, 111 (1122), pp. 531 -542, August 2007. DOI: 10.1017/S0001924000004772.


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