FLIGHT-X has the ability to simulate the effect of dust and volcanic ash ingestion when flying in harsh environments. The instantaneous, maximum and dosage values can be computed depending on the size of the dust.
We discuss whether carrying extra fuel to offset costs differentials is economically advantageous. Without price differential, it is never convenient to carry tanker fuel. At a fixed price differential, the longer the range required, the less convenient fuel tankering is. At some very long range tankering is not economic at all.
FLIGHT-X can provide the complete fuel tankering analysis for specified range, passenger load, bulk payload, atmospheric conditions and price differentials, as shown in the flow chart below. The “tanker” fuel is considered as bulk load, since it will not be used in the outbound flight.
Note that carrying extra fuel weight will cause additional emissions on the outbound flight, and this option has been publicly discouraged in the recent past.
In the case of military operations these considerations do not hold at all: At destination there can be no fuel available. At the time of writing this note, crude oil price is at a multi-year low. This will certainly discourage tankering.